API

Stream

Stream([upstream, upstreams, stream_name, …]) A Stream is an infinite sequence of data
Stream.connect(self, downstream) Connect this stream to a downstream element.
Stream.destroy(self[, streams]) Disconnect this stream from any upstream sources
Stream.disconnect(self, downstream) Disconnect this stream to a downstream element.
Stream.visualize(self[, filename]) Render the computation of this object’s task graph using graphviz.
accumulate(upstream, func[, start, …]) Accumulate results with previous state
buffer(upstream, n, **kwargs) Allow results to pile up at this point in the stream
collect(upstream[, cache]) Hold elements in a cache and emit them as a collection when flushed.
combine_latest(*upstreams, **kwargs) Combine multiple streams together to a stream of tuples
delay(upstream, interval, **kwargs) Add a time delay to results
filter(upstream, predicate, *args, **kwargs) Only pass through elements that satisfy the predicate
flatten([upstream, upstreams, stream_name, …]) Flatten streams of lists or iterables into a stream of elements
map(upstream, func, *args, **kwargs) Apply a function to every element in the stream
partition(upstream, n, **kwargs) Partition stream into tuples of equal size
rate_limit(upstream, interval, **kwargs) Limit the flow of data
scatter(*args, **kwargs) Convert local stream to Dask Stream
sink(upstream, func, *args, **kwargs) Apply a function on every element
slice(upstream[, start, end, step]) Get only some events in a stream by position.
sliding_window(upstream, n[, return_partial]) Produce overlapping tuples of size n
starmap(upstream, func, *args, **kwargs) Apply a function to every element in the stream, splayed out
timed_window(upstream, interval, **kwargs) Emit a tuple of collected results every interval
union(*upstreams, **kwargs) Combine multiple streams into one
unique(upstream[, maxsize, key, hashable]) Avoid sending through repeated elements
pluck(upstream, pick, **kwargs) Select elements from elements in the stream.
zip(*upstreams, **kwargs) Combine streams together into a stream of tuples
zip_latest(lossless, *upstreams, **kwargs) Combine multiple streams together to a stream of tuples
Stream.connect(self, downstream)

Connect this stream to a downstream element.

Parameters:
downstream: Stream

The downstream stream to connect to

Stream.disconnect(self, downstream)

Disconnect this stream to a downstream element.

Parameters:
downstream: Stream

The downstream stream to disconnect from

Stream.destroy(self, streams=None)

Disconnect this stream from any upstream sources

Stream.emit(self, x, asynchronous=False)

Push data into the stream at this point

This is typically done only at source Streams but can theortically be done at any point

Stream.frequencies(self, **kwargs)

Count occurrences of elements

classmethod Stream.register_api(modifier=<function identity at 0x7f7dcce1f2f0>)

Add callable to Stream API

This allows you to register a new method onto this class. You can use it as a decorator.:

>>> @Stream.register_api()
... class foo(Stream):
...     ...

>>> Stream().foo(...)  # this works now

It attaches the callable as a normal attribute to the class object. In doing so it respsects inheritance (all subclasses of Stream will also get the foo attribute).

By default callables are assumed to be instance methods. If you like you can include modifiers to apply before attaching to the class as in the following case where we construct a staticmethod.

>>> @Stream.register_api(staticmethod)
... class foo(Stream):
...     ...
>>> Stream.foo(...)  # Foo operates as a static method
Stream.sink_to_list(self)

Append all elements of a stream to a list as they come in

Examples

>>> source = Stream()
>>> L = source.map(lambda x: 10 * x).sink_to_list()
>>> for i in range(5):
...     source.emit(i)
>>> L
[0, 10, 20, 30, 40]
Stream.update(self, x, who=None)
Stream.visualize(self, filename='mystream.png', **kwargs)

Render the computation of this object’s task graph using graphviz.

Requires graphviz to be installed.

Parameters:
filename : str, optional

The name of the file to write to disk.

kwargs:

Graph attributes to pass to graphviz like rankdir="LR"

Sources

filenames(path[, poll_interval, start]) Stream over filenames in a directory
from_kafka(topics, consumer_params[, …]) Accepts messages from Kafka
from_kafka_batched(topic, consumer_params[, …]) Get messages from Kafka in batches
from_process(cmd[, open_kwargs, …]) Messages from a running external process
from_textfile(f[, poll_interval, delimiter, …]) Stream data from a text file
from_tcp(port[, delimiter, start, server_kwargs]) Creates events by reading from a socket using tornado TCPServer
from_http_server(port[, path, start, …]) Listen for HTTP POSTs on given port

DaskStream

DaskStream(*args, **kwargs) A Parallel stream using Dask
gather([upstream, upstreams, stream_name, …]) Wait on and gather results from DaskStream to local Stream

Definitions

streamz.accumulate(upstream, func, start='--no-default--', returns_state=False, **kwargs)

Accumulate results with previous state

This performs running or cumulative reductions, applying the function to the previous total and the new element. The function should take two arguments, the previous accumulated state and the next element and it should return a new accumulated state, - state = func(previous_state, new_value) (returns_state=False) - state, result = func(previous_state, new_value) (returns_state=True)

where the new_state is passed to the next invocation. The state or result is emitted downstream for the two cases.

Parameters:
func: callable
start: object

Initial value, passed as the value of previous_state on the first invocation. Defaults to the first submitted element

returns_state: boolean

If true then func should return both the state and the value to emit If false then both values are the same, and func returns one value

**kwargs:

Keyword arguments to pass to func

Examples

A running total, producing triangular numbers

>>> source = Stream()
>>> source.accumulate(lambda acc, x: acc + x).sink(print)
>>> for i in range(5):
...     source.emit(i)
0
1
3
6
10

A count of number of events (including the current one)

>>> source = Stream()
>>> source.accumulate(lambda acc, x: acc + 1, start=0).sink(print)
>>> for _ in range(5):
...     source.emit(0)
1
2
3
4
5

Like the builtin “enumerate”.

>>> source = Stream()
>>> source.accumulate(lambda acc, x: ((acc[0] + 1, x), (acc[0], x)),
...                   start=(0, 0), returns_state=True
...                   ).sink(print)
>>> for i in range(3):
...     source.emit(0)
(0, 0)
(1, 0)
(2, 0)
streamz.buffer(upstream, n, **kwargs)

Allow results to pile up at this point in the stream

This allows results to buffer in place at various points in the stream. This can help to smooth flow through the system when backpressure is applied.

streamz.collect(upstream, cache=None, **kwargs)

Hold elements in a cache and emit them as a collection when flushed.

Examples

>>> source1 = Stream()
>>> source2 = Stream()
>>> collector = collect(source1)
>>> collector.sink(print)
>>> source2.sink(collector.flush)
>>> source1.emit(1)
>>> source1.emit(2)
>>> source2.emit('anything')  # flushes collector
...
[1, 2]
streamz.combine_latest(*upstreams, **kwargs)

Combine multiple streams together to a stream of tuples

This will emit a new tuple of all of the most recent elements seen from any stream.

Parameters:
emit_on : stream or list of streams or None

only emit upon update of the streams listed. If None, emit on update from any stream

See also

zip
streamz.delay(upstream, interval, **kwargs)

Add a time delay to results

streamz.filter(upstream, predicate, *args, **kwargs)

Only pass through elements that satisfy the predicate

Parameters:
predicate : function

The predicate. Should return True or False, where True means that the predicate is satisfied.

*args :

The arguments to pass to the predicate.

**kwargs:

Keyword arguments to pass to predicate

Examples

>>> source = Stream()
>>> source.filter(lambda x: x % 2 == 0).sink(print)
>>> for i in range(5):
...     source.emit(i)
0
2
4
streamz.flatten(upstream=None, upstreams=None, stream_name=None, loop=None, asynchronous=None, ensure_io_loop=False)

Flatten streams of lists or iterables into a stream of elements

See also

partition

Examples

>>> source = Stream()
>>> source.flatten().sink(print)
>>> for x in [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5], [6, 7, 7]]:
...     source.emit(x)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
streamz.map(upstream, func, *args, **kwargs)

Apply a function to every element in the stream

Parameters:
func: callable
*args :

The arguments to pass to the function.

**kwargs:

Keyword arguments to pass to func

Examples

>>> source = Stream()
>>> source.map(lambda x: 2*x).sink(print)
>>> for i in range(5):
...     source.emit(i)
0
2
4
6
8
streamz.partition(upstream, n, **kwargs)

Partition stream into tuples of equal size

Examples

>>> source = Stream()
>>> source.partition(3).sink(print)
>>> for i in range(10):
...     source.emit(i)
(0, 1, 2)
(3, 4, 5)
(6, 7, 8)
streamz.rate_limit(upstream, interval, **kwargs)

Limit the flow of data

This stops two elements of streaming through in an interval shorter than the provided value.

Parameters:
interval: float

Time in seconds

streamz.sink(upstream, func, *args, **kwargs)

Apply a function on every element

Examples

>>> source = Stream()
>>> L = list()
>>> source.sink(L.append)
>>> source.sink(print)
>>> source.sink(print)
>>> source.emit(123)
123
123
>>> L
[123]
streamz.sliding_window(upstream, n, return_partial=True, **kwargs)

Produce overlapping tuples of size n

Parameters:
return_partial : bool

If True, yield tuples as soon as any events come in, each tuple being smaller or equal to the window size. If False, only start yielding tuples once a full window has accrued.

Examples

>>> source = Stream()
>>> source.sliding_window(3, return_partial=False).sink(print)
>>> for i in range(8):
...     source.emit(i)
(0, 1, 2)
(1, 2, 3)
(2, 3, 4)
(3, 4, 5)
(4, 5, 6)
(5, 6, 7)
streamz.Stream(upstream=None, upstreams=None, stream_name=None, loop=None, asynchronous=None, ensure_io_loop=False)

A Stream is an infinite sequence of data

Streams subscribe to each other passing and transforming data between them. A Stream object listens for updates from upstream, reacts to these updates, and then emits more data to flow downstream to all Stream objects that subscribe to it. Downstream Stream objects may connect at any point of a Stream graph to get a full view of the data coming off of that point to do with as they will.

Parameters:
asynchronous: boolean or None

Whether or not this stream will be used in asynchronous functions or normal Python functions. Leave as None if you don’t know. True will cause operations like emit to return awaitable Futures False will use an Event loop in another thread (starts it if necessary)

ensure_io_loop: boolean

Ensure that some IOLoop will be created. If asynchronous is None or False then this will be in a separate thread, otherwise it will be IOLoop.current

Examples

>>> def inc(x):
...     return x + 1
>>> source = Stream()  # Create a stream object
>>> s = source.map(inc).map(str)  # Subscribe to make new streams
>>> s.sink(print)  # take an action whenever an element reaches the end
>>> L = list()
>>> s.sink(L.append)  # or take multiple actions (streams can branch)
>>> for i in range(5):
...     source.emit(i)  # push data in at the source
'1'
'2'
'3'
'4'
'5'
>>> L  # and the actions happen at the sinks
['1', '2', '3', '4', '5']
streamz.timed_window(upstream, interval, **kwargs)

Emit a tuple of collected results every interval

Every interval seconds this emits a tuple of all of the results seen so far. This can help to batch data coming off of a high-volume stream.

streamz.union(*upstreams, **kwargs)

Combine multiple streams into one

Every element from any of the upstreams streams will immediately flow into the output stream. They will not be combined with elements from other streams.

See also

Stream.zip
Stream.combine_latest
streamz.unique(upstream, maxsize=None, key=<function identity>, hashable=True, **kwargs)

Avoid sending through repeated elements

This deduplicates a stream so that only new elements pass through. You can control how much of a history is stored with the history= parameter. For example setting history=1 avoids sending through elements when one is repeated right after the other.

Parameters:
history : int or None, optional

number of stored unique values to check against

key : function, optional

Function which returns a representation of the incoming data. For example key=lambda x: x['a'] could be used to allow only pieces of data with unique 'a' values to pass through.

hashable : bool, optional

If True then data is assumed to be hashable, else it is not. This is used for determining how to cache the history, if hashable then either dicts or LRU caches are used, otherwise a deque is used. Defaults to True.

Examples

>>> source = Stream()
>>> source.unique(history=1).sink(print)
>>> for x in [1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1, 3]:
...     source.emit(x)
1
2
1
3
streamz.pluck(upstream, pick, **kwargs)

Select elements from elements in the stream.

Parameters:
pluck : object, list

The element(s) to pick from the incoming element in the stream If an instance of list, will pick multiple elements.

Examples

>>> source = Stream()
>>> source.pluck([0, 3]).sink(print)
>>> for x in [[1, 2, 3, 4], [4, 5, 6, 7], [8, 9, 10, 11]]:
...     source.emit(x)
(1, 4)
(4, 7)
(8, 11)
>>> source = Stream()
>>> source.pluck('name').sink(print)
>>> for x in [{'name': 'Alice', 'x': 123}, {'name': 'Bob', 'x': 456}]:
...     source.emit(x)
'Alice'
'Bob'
streamz.zip(*upstreams, **kwargs)

Combine streams together into a stream of tuples

We emit a new tuple once all streams have produce a new tuple.

streamz.zip_latest(lossless, *upstreams, **kwargs)

Combine multiple streams together to a stream of tuples

The stream which this is called from is lossless. All elements from the lossless stream are emitted reguardless of when they came in. This will emit a new tuple consisting of an element from the lossless stream paired with the latest elements from the other streams. Elements are only emitted when an element on the lossless stream are received, similar to combine_latest with the emit_on flag.

See also

Stream.combine_latest
Stream.zip
streamz.filenames(path, poll_interval=0.1, start=False, **kwargs)

Stream over filenames in a directory

Parameters:
path: string

Directory path or globstring over which to search for files

poll_interval: Number

Seconds between checking path

start: bool (False)

Whether to start running immediately; otherwise call stream.start() explicitly.

Examples

>>> source = Stream.filenames('path/to/dir')  # doctest: +SKIP
>>> source = Stream.filenames('path/to/*.csv', poll_interval=0.500)  # doctest: +SKIP
streamz.from_kafka(topics, consumer_params, poll_interval=0.1, start=False, **kwargs)

Accepts messages from Kafka

Uses the confluent-kafka library, https://docs.confluent.io/current/clients/confluent-kafka-python/

Parameters:
topics: list of str

Labels of Kafka topics to consume from

consumer_params: dict

Settings to set up the stream, see https://docs.confluent.io/current/clients/confluent-kafka-python/#configuration https://github.com/edenhill/librdkafka/blob/master/CONFIGURATION.md Examples: bootstrap.servers, Connection string(s) (host:port) by which to reach Kafka; group.id, Identity of the consumer. If multiple sources share the same group, each message will be passed to only one of them.

poll_interval: number

Seconds that elapse between polling Kafka for new messages

start: bool (False)

Whether to start polling upon instantiation

Examples

>>> source = Stream.from_kafka(['mytopic'],
...           {'bootstrap.servers': 'localhost:9092',
...            'group.id': 'streamz'})  # doctest: +SKIP
streamz.from_textfile(f, poll_interval=0.1, delimiter='\n', start=False, from_end=False, **kwargs)

Stream data from a text file

Parameters:
f: file or string

Source of the data. If string, will be opened.

poll_interval: Number

Interval to poll file for new data in seconds

delimiter: str

Character(s) to use to split the data into parts

start: bool

Whether to start running immediately; otherwise call stream.start() explicitly.

from_end: bool

Whether to begin streaming from the end of the file (i.e., only emit lines appended after the stream starts).

Returns:
Stream

Examples

>>> source = Stream.from_textfile('myfile.json')  # doctest: +SKIP
>>> js.map(json.loads).pluck('value').sum().sink(print)  # doctest: +SKIP
>>> source.start()  # doctest: +SKIP
streamz.dask.DaskStream(*args, **kwargs)

A Parallel stream using Dask

This object is fully compliant with the streamz.core.Stream object but uses a Dask client for execution. Operations like map and accumulate submit functions to run on the Dask instance using dask.distributed.Client.submit and pass around Dask futures. Time-based operations like timed_window, buffer, and so on operate as normal.

Typically one transfers between normal Stream and DaskStream objects using the Stream.scatter() and DaskStream.gather() methods.

See also

dask.distributed.Client

Examples

>>> from dask.distributed import Client
>>> client = Client()
>>> from streamz import Stream
>>> source = Stream()
>>> source.scatter().map(func).accumulate(binop).gather().sink(...)
streamz.dask.gather(upstream=None, upstreams=None, stream_name=None, loop=None, asynchronous=None, ensure_io_loop=False)

Wait on and gather results from DaskStream to local Stream

This waits on every result in the stream and then gathers that result back to the local stream. Warning, this can restrict parallelism. It is common to combine a gather() node with a buffer() to allow unfinished futures to pile up.

See also

buffer
scatter

Examples

>>> local_stream = dask_stream.buffer(20).gather()